Some people have massive bunions that aren?t that painful but cause difficulties with shoes, while others have relatively small bunions that are very painful. However, just because you have Hallux valgus doesn?t mean you?ll get the bursa. Pressure from the big toe joint can lead to a deformity in the joint of the second toe, pushing it toward the third toe and so on. Likewise, if the second toe and big toe cross over, it can be difficult to walk. Once the big toe leans toward the second toe, the tendons no longer pull the toe in a straight line, so the problem tends to get progressively worse. This condition can also encourage corns and calluses to develop.
Women are particularly at risk for bunions, as high heels may help aggravate the condition. Bunions may also be caused when bursal sacs, sacs that absorb friction and lubricate the many tendons, bones muscles of the body, in the foot become inflamed or swollen. Bunions may also be prompted by the metatarsal bone, the bone that runs from the heel to the toe of the foot, with one metatarsal bone leading to each toe, of the big toe enlarging or deviating slightly to the outside of the foot.
Corns and calluses may occur on the soles of the feet, in between toes and on the bunion joint. Stiffness can occur at the big toe due to secondary arthritis, this is known as Hallux Rigidus. Other foot conditions can occur such as in growing toenails and in severe cases the bunion joint may have a fluid filled sack called a bursitis. This can be very painful and can become infected.
Your doctor can identify a bunion by examining your foot. Watching your big toe as you move it up and down will help your doctor determine if your range of motion is limited. Your doctor will also look for redness or swelling. After the physical exam, an X-ray of your foot can help your doctor identify the cause of the bunion and rate its severity.
Non Surgical Treatment
A hinged flexible bunion splint, can relieve pain by providing corrective arch support and releasing tension away from the inflamed joint. Change shoes! Avoid flip flops, high-heels and shoes with pointed, narrow toe-boxes. Medicine will not prevent or cure bunions. However, the use of over the counter anti- inflammatory medications can help. Bunion splints, pads and arch supports can help redistribute weight and move pressure away from the big toe.
Surgery may be recommended for some bunions, but only when symptoms are severe enough to warrant such intervention. Surgery for a bunion, called a bunionectomy, is done in hospital usually under general anaesthesia. The surgeon can often realign the bone behind the big toe by cutting the ligaments at the joint. For a severe bunion, you may need to have the bone cut in a technique called an osteotomy. Wires or screws may be inserted to keep the bones in line, and excess bone may be shaved off or removed. Potential complications of surgery include recurrence of the bunion, inadequate correction, overcorrection (the toe now points inwards), continued pain, and limited movement of the big toe.